Time of Abraham begins
Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilization in flower
Abraham was the first person in the world who questioned polytheism, or idol worship of many gods. He looked at the sun, moon and nature and came to the conclusion that there must be an all-powerful G-d who is unseen but sees all, who created the world and everything in it. This realization came to him at the age of three and when he was ten years old, he went to his great (x10) grandfather Noah and his son Shem to learn about the history of the world since Creation. They instructed him in the ways of G-d. When Abraham was 48 years old he started openly defying idol worship and the mighty King Nimrod of Babylon.
Times of Isaac and Jacob as described in Bereshit – Genesis.
Joseph sold into slavery by his brothers and taken to Egypt. After a period of enslavement, becomes viceroy over Egypt.
Joseph welcomes his family to Egypt after they are forced to leave Israel because of famine.
Israelites enslaved in Egypt
Egyptian cities of Pithom and Ramses are built by the Jewish slaves.
Time of Moses begins.
Moses was the son of Amram and Yocheved. Through miraculous events, he grew up in Pharaoh’s palace and was chosen by G-d to lead the Jews out of Egypt, with his brother Aharon.
Exodus – G-d leads the Jews out of Egypt and splits the Red Sea for them.
Torah given at Mt. Sinai
Conquest of Promised Land and division by the Twelve Tribes of Israel.
Time of the Judges begins
Time of King David begins
King Solomon begins his rule
First Temple completed
Assyrian Empire rising in the north
Israel is split into two kingdoms – Israel and Judah.
Assyrians overrun Northern Israel;
Ten tribes are lost
Sennacherib attacks Jerusalem
Babylonians overrun Assyrian Empire
Babylonians conquer Israel and destroy Temple
c. 587 – 518 BCE
Persians overrun Babylonian Empire
Jews return to Israel from Babylonian Exile
Miracle of Purim
538 – 332 BCE
Construction of Second Temple begins
Time of the Great Assembly begins
332 – 110 BCE
Greeks overrun Persian Empire
Greeks conquer Israel
Torah is translated into Greek
Greeks persecute Jews
Revolt of Maccabees begins
Miracle of Chanukah
110 – 63 BCE
The Hasmonean Kingdom
Romans overrun Greek Empire
63 BCE – 324 CE
Romans invade Israel
Roman rule in the land of Israel
Herod the Great begins his rule
The Great Revolt of Jews against Rome begins
Jerusalem conquered by the Romans
17th of tammuz
9th of av
Temple destroyed by Romans
Late Roman period in the Land of Israel
Rabbi Akiva martyred
Rebellion of Bar Kochba
Mishna compiled by Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi
Constantine converts Roman Empire to Christianity
Jews of Babylonia
Byzantine period in the land of Israel
Time of Rashi begins
Jewish Golden Age
Fall of Rome and Rise of Byzantine Empire
Islamic Conquest of Jerusalem
Islamic period in the land of Israel
Crusaders period in the land of Israel
First Blood Libel
Time of Nachmanides (Ramban)
Jews expelled from Spain;
Colombus discovers America
Early Modern period
Ottoman Empire takes over the Middle East
Some of the Jews expelled from Spain, Portugal and many German cities move to Poland. By the mid sixteenth century, some eighty percent of the world’s Jews lived in Poland, a figure that held steady for centuries.
King Alexander of Poland readmits Jews to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Jews invited into Poland
Time of the Ari and the Kabbalists in Israel
Chmielnicki Massacres in Eastern Europe of the Jews begins in Europe
Times of Shabbtai Tzvi, false messiah
Time of the Ba’al Shem Tov begins; Chassidic Movement
Times of the Misnagdim and Vilna Gaon
The European Enlightenment and Haskalah
Jews arrive in America
Jews herded into the Pale of Settlement in Russia
Aliyah to Israel
Dreyfuss Affair in France
First Zionist Congress
World War I; End of Ottoman Empire
British Mandate begins in Palestine
Hitler comes to power in Germany
World War II
Final Solution formulated by the Nazis
Partition of Palestine by the UN
State of Israel declared
War of Independence in Israel