1812 BCE
Time of Abraham begins
Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilization in flower

Abraham was the first person in the world who questioned polytheism, or idol worship of many gods. He looked at the sun, moon and nature and came to the conclusion that there must be an all-powerful G-d who is unseen but sees all, who created the world and everything in it. This realization came to him at the age of three and when he was ten years old, he went to his great (x10) grandfather Noah and his son Shem to learn about the history of the world since Creation. They instructed him in the ways of G-d. When Abraham was 48 years old he started openly defying idol worship and the mighty King Nimrod of Babylon.

Times of Isaac and Jacob as described in Bereshit – Genesis.

1652 BCE
Joseph sold into slavery by his brothers and taken to Egypt. After a period of enslavement, becomes viceroy over Egypt.

1544 BCE
Joseph welcomes his family to Egypt after they are forced to leave Israel because of famine.

1522 BCE
Israelites enslaved in Egypt

1428 BCE
Egyptian cities of Pithom and Ramses are built by the Jewish slaves.

Time of Moses begins.
Moses was the son of Amram and Yocheved. Through miraculous events, he grew up in Pharaoh’s palace and was chosen by G-d to lead the Jews out of Egypt, with his brother Aharon.

1392 BCE
Exodus – G-d leads the Jews out of Egypt and splits the Red Sea for them.

1312 BCE
Torah given at Mt. Sinai

Conquest of Promised Land and division by the Twelve Tribes of Israel.

1272 BCE
Time of the Judges begins

879 BCE
Time of King David begins

877 BCE
King Solomon begins his rule

836 BCE
First Temple completed

825 BCE
Assyrian Empire rising in the north

Israel is split into two kingdoms – Israel and Judah.

796 BCE
Assyrians overrun Northern Israel;

555 BCE
Ten tribes are lost

Sennacherib attacks Jerusalem

547 BCE
Babylonians overrun Assyrian Empire

Babylonians conquer Israel and destroy Temple

c. 587 – 518 BCE
Babylonian captivity

422 BCE
Persians overrun Babylonian Empire

Jews return to Israel from Babylonian Exile

Miracle of Purim

538 – 332 BCE
Post-exilic period

355 BCE
Construction of Second Temple begins

347 BCE
Time of the Great Assembly begins

332 – 110 BCE
Hellenistic period

Greeks overrun Persian Empire

312 BCE
Greeks conquer Israel

Torah is translated into Greek

245 BCE
Greeks persecute Jews
Revolt of Maccabees begins

167 BCE
Miracle of Chanukah

110 – 63 BCE
The Hasmonean Kingdom

139 BCE
Romans overrun Greek Empire

63 BCE – 324 CE
Romans invade Israel
Roman rule in the land of Israel

63 BCE
Herod the Great begins his rule

32 BCE
The Great Revolt of Jews against Rome begins

67 CE
Jerusalem conquered by the Romans

70 CE
17th of tammuz
9th of av
Temple destroyed by Romans

The Diaspora

Late Roman period in the Land of Israel

120 CE
Rabbi Akiva martyred

132-136 CE
Rebellion of Bar Kochba

136 CE
Mishna compiled by Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi

219 CE
Constantine converts Roman Empire to Christianity

Middle Ages

Jews of Babylonia

Byzantine period in the land of Israel

638 CE
Time of Rashi begins

Jewish Golden Age

Fall of Rome and Rise of Byzantine Empire

Islamic Conquest of Jerusalem

Islamic period in the land of Israel

Crusaders period in the land of Israel

First Blood Libel

Time of Nachmanides (Ramban)

Black Plague

Inquisition begins

1492 CE
Jews expelled from Spain;
Colombus discovers America


Early Modern period
Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire takes over the Middle East


Some of the Jews expelled from Spain, Portugal and many German cities move to Poland. By the mid sixteenth century, some eighty percent of the world’s Jews lived in Poland, a figure that held steady for centuries.
King Alexander of Poland readmits Jews to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Jews invited into Poland

Time of the Ari and the Kabbalists in Israel

Chmielnicki Massacres in Eastern Europe of the Jews begins in Europe

Times of Shabbtai Tzvi, false messiah

Time of the Ba’al Shem Tov begins; Chassidic Movement

Times of the Misnagdim and Vilna Gaon

18th Century
The European Enlightenment and Haskalah

19th century

Jews arrive in America

Jews herded into the Pale of Settlement in Russia

Aliyah to Israel

Dreyfuss Affair in France

Modern Zionism

First Zionist Congress

20th century
World War I; End of Ottoman Empire

British Mandate begins in Palestine

Balfour Declaration

Hitler comes to power in Germany

World War II

Final Solution formulated by the Nazis

Partition of Palestine by the UN

State of Israel declared

War of Independence in Israel